The present paper deals with the effect of circulation and other flow parameters affecting the critical submergence at vertical pipe intakes drawing water from reservoirs and streams for hydropower and pumping plants. Examination of data collected in the present study and from literature reveals that for the same Froude number, critical submergence for flat and bell mouth intakes are different. Froude number is the predominant parameter which affects the critical submergence. Circulation increases the critical submergence for both flat and bell mouth vertical intakes. Predictors for critical submergence for both shapes of vertical intakes are proposed. Predicted critical submergence from the proposed predictors compare well with the observed ones.

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