The efficiency of 16.6% (aperture area: 17.3% efficiency) has been achieved in polycrystalline modules with 54 solar cells. In order to achieve this result, both the module design and the output of each individual cell were optimized.

Back-contact technology involves transferring the current-carrying electrodes from the front to the rear side. This leads to an increase in the aperture area on the front of the module and hence to an improvement in efficiency.

Kyocera’s own energy conversion results already report efficiency levels of 18.5% for polycrystalline solar cells still in the development stage.

The efficiency of the aperture area is restricted to the inner area of a module, whereas the module efficiency also includes the frame.