The deliverables included a full area cell efficiency of a minimum of 20% and reliability tests to meet the guidelines of the DoE, securing certification from the DoE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

TetraSun developed a surface passivation technology to 40um wide copper electrodes instead of screen-printed silver metallization.

The company received a $2.3m grant from the DoE and has raised $12m from equity and strategic customer investors since 2009.

The technology now ready to be scaled up for production and has been deployed in the US and Japan.

Commenting on the developments TetraSun vice president of device engineering Oliver Schultz-Wittmann said, "This has always been about creating a transformational technology – technology that will allow for the highest efficiency at the lowest cost – enabling solar to become a real part of our energy supply."