Table 7: A summary of the state of risk assessment practices for dam safety in some European countries (based on ICOLD, 2004)

Finland Currently no specific requirements for risk based analyses. Pilot project being undertaken as part of emergency preparedness planning.
France Not in the current state of practice. Formal risk assessment has not yet proven its efficiency. Simplified risk assessments being carried out to prioritize investigations and remedial works.
Switzerland Not yet a requirement but there is an interest to apply risk based methodologies. Currently not used.
Germany It is not part of the dam safety requirements but it is referenced in relation to floods. There is allowance for complementary risk assessment.
Netherlands Risk criteria exist for hazardous installations, transport routes and airports. It is anticipated that dam safety assessments will become more and more probabilistic. A risk based design was performed for a storm surge barrier.
Norway Considered useful to improve understanding of behaviours and failure mechanisms but controversial. Regulations allow for risk assessment but no direction provided. Guidelines for risk assessment for dams for prioritization and selection of remedial measures in place since 1997.
Sweden Anticipated risk analysis will be used but at present not possible to use risk analysis alone. Risk analyses have been performed for two dams to date. No specific guidelines for risk analysis bit pilot projects to be used to establish a framework.
UK Health and Safety Executive has been involved in the development of risk tolerability form hazardous industries and may take a greater role in dam safety.
Italy Little work performed to date. No guidelines or legislation on risk assessment.
Poland No guidelines or regulations
Portugal No guidelines or regulations