The island of Sri Lanka is in the Indian ocean, bordering Southern Asia, just south of India. It has a total area of 65,610km2 including the inland waters, and its total population is 20,064,776 (estimated in 2005, CIA Facts). Electricity production during 2002 was 6951GWh, consisting of oil (4255GWh); other sources (4GWh) and hydro (2692GWh) (IEA Energy Statistics). Sri Lanka transmission grid is an isolated system with no connection to the outside and hence importing or exporting electricity is not possible. The peak demand during 2003 was 1516MW and the average base load was 600MW.

Sri Lanka has a gross theoretical hydro power potential of 8250GWh, although the technically feasible potential is equivalent to 2000MW, and the economically feasible potential is 7255GWh. At present there are 300 large dams in Sri Lanka, where more then 80 are major. Medium and minor reservoirs (tanks) amount to thousands and most of them are located in lower terrains.

Installed hydro power in Sri Lanka totals 1185MW and around 70% of the technically feasible potential has been developed. 111MW of this was developed more then 40 years ago. Construction of a major hydro project, the Upper Kotmale (150MW) scheme, will begin shortly, with commissioning expected by 2009. Two other projects (Broadlands, 40MW, and Uma Oya, 150MW) are considered as Sri Lanka’s most additions. Thus in total, planned hydro schemes combine to around 407MW.

Educational programmes

• The University of Moratuwa has an Engineering in Hydraulics programme under its department of Civil Engineering. Hydraulic Engineering at undergraduate level covers the second, third and fourth year of the degree course specialising in Civil Engineering. During this period, students are exposed to a range of topics covering Fluid Mechanics, Hydrology, Irrigation, Hydro Power, Coastal and Environmental Engineering. Also offered is a Master of Engineering degree and a post-graduate diploma in Environmental Water Resources Engineering and Management.

• University of Peradeniya has a course named Hydro Power Development under the department of Civil Engineering. There is also a postgraduate programme in Environmental and Water Engineering within the department of Civil Engineering. In addition to this, students are taught subjects like Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulic Structures and Water Resources as part of the course for Bachelor of Science civil engineering students. Some of the post graduate students also do their research projects in the area of hydro power, especially mini hydro. Courses.htm

• Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) usually conducts short courses in micro and mini hydro power development. Their South Asian office is located in Colombo. ITDG has developed micro hydro systems with communities in Nepal (around 1200 schemes benefiting around 1M people), Peru, Sri Lanka, and Kenya. These systems, which are designed to operate for a minimum of 20 years, are usually run of river systems.

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