China is located in Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam. It is the largest country in Asia with a total area of 9,596,960km2 and the world’s largest population of 1,306,313,812 (July 2005 est.) (CIA Facts). China has a total electricity production of 1674792GWh, consisting of coal 1,292,790GWh, oil 49,540GWh, gas 16,923GWh, biomass 2438GWh, nuclear 25,127GWh, and hydro 287,974GWh (IEA Energy Statistics, 2002). Electric generation capacity of China is 338GW, consisting of 253GW thermal, 83GW hydro, and 2GW nuclear (EAI, 2002).
China is rich in water resources; based on 2000-2004 investigations, the total theoretical hydro power potential is 689GW, with an annual output of 6040TWh. The total technical exploitable capacity is 493GW, equivalent to 20.75% of the world’s total; with an annual output of 2260TWh. The total economic exploitable capacity is 395GW, with an annual output of 1740TWh.
There are 82,848 dams in China, of which 358 are considered large, 2480 medium and 80,010 small. Of the 49 dams in China which exceed 100m in height, 10 are CFRD’s, 20 are concrete gravity dams, 11 are arch dams, five are earth rockfill dams with a core, and three are buttress dams. For dams between 50m and 100m, there are 127 arch dams, 129 earth dams, 119 concrete gravity dams, 88 earth and rockfill dams, and eight buttress dams for a total of 471 dams
There are 69 large and medium hydro power plants under construction in the country, with a total installed capacity of 49.18GW. Including these projects, the total installed capacity is now 128GW.
According to plans, China’s total hydro power installed capacity will reach 270GW in 2020.
China has numerous large rivers, of which the majority has abundant runoff. Many of them, such as the Yangtze and Yellow river, originate in western high mountains and plateaus like Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, descending from altitudes of 4000-5500m, running down eastwards and flowing into the sea.
China is a developing country with a population of 1.292B in 2003 – a large country in energy consumption. The annual electricity output in 2003 was 1910.7BkWh, the generation per capita is just 1478.86kWh, only 1/4 of the world’s average. To ensure appropriate growth and sustainable development in national economy, the following corresponding strategic measures are to be taken:
• Sustainable development.
• Control of population growth.
The success of a balanced development in such a large country as China will not only benefit the Chinese people, but also contribute markedly to a globally sustainable development.
• Tsinghua University was established in 1911. In 1926 a department of civil engineering and a department of hydraulic and hydro power engineering was established. These departments work under the school of civil engineering. They have one Bachelor i.e. water conservancy and hydropower construction engineering, and six Masters such as water conservancy and hydro power engineering, hydraulics and river dynamics engineering, hydrology and water resources engineering and others. http://www.civil.edu.cn/TCHSchool/EVersin/introduction/ hydr.htm
• The College of water conservancy and civil engineering at the China Agriculture University was established in 1958. The college consists of four departments as follows: Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Department of Agricultural Structure & Bioenvironmental Engineering, Department of Fluid Engineering & Fluid Machinery, and the Department of Civil Engineering. It has an undergraduate programme in hydraulic and hydro power (BSe). There is also a Master programme in hydrology and water resources (M.S.E). http://www.cau.edu.cn/water/index.php?sort=1&id=ywb&tid=1
• The School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering at Dalian University of Technology offers a Bachelor degree programme in hydraulic and hydroelectrical engineering, with a duration of four years. The university also provides Masters degrees in hydrology and water resources, and also in some related fields such as hydraulics and river dynamics, and hydraulic structure engineering. http://dutsice.dlut.edu.cn/e/specia/
• The school of civil engineering is one of the largest schools at Tianjin University. It offers six majors such as civil engineering, environmental engineering, building services engineering, water resources and hydropower engineering, port, waterway and coastal engineering, naval and ocean engineering. It also offers a Masters degree in 10 subjects, including water resources and hydro power engineering, and hydro-structural engineering. http://www2.tju.edu.cn/colleges/civil/english/default.htm
• At the University of Hohai , the College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering consists of the department of hydropower engineering, department of irrigation and drainage engineering and the institute of water conservancy and hydro power engineering. The programmes offered include a Master degree and Ph.D degree: hydro-structure engineering, hydro power engineering, hydraulic and river dynamics, hydrology and water resources, irrigation and drainage engineering, fluid machinery and fluids engineering, mechanics. The university is also involved in extensive research related with hydro power. So far, the College has trained more than 7000 students from all over China, and some from African and Asian countries. http://www.hhu.edu.cn/EN/gaik/exm4.htm
• There is a School of Hydropower and Information Engineering at the Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology. It offers several Masters and Doctoral programmes in hydro power, including one in water conservancy and hydro power engineering (for both masters and Doctoral level). http://www.hust.edu.cn/english/academic/depart/hydropower/graduate.htm
• The School of Civil Engineering at Hefei University of Technology has been divided into four departments – civil engineering, water supply & drainage engineering, water conservancy & hydraulic power engineering, architectural environment & equipment engineering. There are five B.Sc courses in the school, which specialise in civil engineering, water supply and sewerage engineering, water conservancy and hydraulic engineering, engineering mechanics. For postgraduates to students, there are nine M.Sc courses, which specialise in engineering mechanics, solid mechanics, structural engineering, rock-soil engineering, hydro-structure engineering, hydrology and water resources, hdrodynamics and river-flow dynamics, municipal engineering, and engineering survey. There are two PhD study programmes, which specialise in engineering mechanics and structural engineering. http://www1.hfut.edu.cn/department/tujian/english/index.htm
• College of architecture and civil engineering of Fuzhou University offers Bachelor’s degree programmes in water supply and sewage engineering, and water conservancy and hydroelectric engineering. http://www.fzu.edu.cn/eindex.html
• Nanchang University has a civil engineering school which offers Bachelor degrees in water and electricity engineering, and hydraulic engineering. http://www.ncu.edu.cn/ywb/ ncu1/specialities.html
• The College of Water Resources and Hydroelectric Engineering at Wuhan University has several programmes related with hydro power, including undergraduate specialties in water conservancy and hydro power engineering, and hydrology and water resources engineering. Post graduate and Doctoral degrees are offered in hydrology and water resources, hydraulics and river dynamics, hydraulic structural engineering, water conservancy and hydropower engineering. http://www.wuhee.edu.cn/en/foster/Colleges.htm
• The School of Architecture and Civil Engineering of South China University of Technology offers an undergraduate programme (B.Eng) in hydraulic and hydro power engineering, with a duration of four years. http://www.scut.edu.cn/ english/admission.htm
• There is a School of Water Resources and Hydroelectric Power running at Xi’an University of Technology. Three departments are organised under the school: Department of Water Resources and Hydroelectric Power Engineering, Department of Architecture Engineering, and the Department of Power Engineering. Students can also specialise in water resources and hydroelectric construction engineering, and water resources and hydroelectric power engineering. http://www.xaut.edu.cn/wangxaut/english/departments.htm
• The Faculty of Water Conservation, Hydropower and Architecture at Yunnan University of Agriculture offers Bachelor degrees in water conservation and hydro power design over a four year period. http://184.108.40.206/iced/ ForeignStudents.htm
• Qinghai University has a Department of Hydraulic and Hydropower. http://www.qhu.edu.cn/eng/index.htm